Citric Acid Production by the Solid-State Cultivation Consortium of Aspergillus Niger and Trichoderma Reesei from Sugarcane Bagasse

Reinaldo G. Bastos1, *, Hiléia C. Ribeiro1
1 Center of Agricultural Sciences, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, São Paulo, Brazil.

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© 2020 Bastos and Ribeiro.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: ( This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Center of Agricultural Sciences, Federal University of São Carlos, Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo, Brazil;
Tel: +551935432584; E-mail:



The aim of this research was to evaluate the SSC of Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma reesei alone and in consortium for the citric acid production from sugarcane bagasse.


Solid-State Cultivation (SSC) is characterized by microbial growth on solid supports often agroindustrial by-products in the near absence of free water conditions. Citric acid, an important by-product used in various sectors of the economy, can be obtained from the SSC using sugarcane bagasse, minimizing the cost of its production with the use of this industrial by-product.


The fungal consortiums have advantages over the isolated cultures, highlighting the best use of substrates due to enzyme supplementation, especially hydrolases.


The results indicated a specific production of citric acid of 2.51 mg per g of biomass per hour, which was higher than that obtained when using the two fungi alone.

Keywords: Solid-state cultivation, Sugarcane bagasse, Microbial consortium, Citric acid, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma reesei.